Forum OpenACS Q&A: Oracle hotbackup scripts?

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Posted by Andrew Piskorski on
What do folks here running Oracle use to do hot and cold physical backups?

I've written a nice little script to do nightly Oracle exports using named pipes, gzip, and split (as suggested in Expert One-on-One Oracle by Thomas Kyte), which I can upload here if anyone's interested, but I don't have a similar solution set up yet for doing periodic hot and cold physical backups of Oracle (using archivelog mode for hot backups, etc.)

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Posted by Bruno Mattarollo on

There is a good example from a book of Oracle Press called Oracle 8i Backup and Recovery. The scripts from the book need some syntax check but they are quite useful.

I don't think I am entitled to put the scripts somewhere since I don't know about all the copyright stuff involved

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Posted by Jade Rubick on
Andrew, if you didn't mind posting your scripts here, that would be great. My backup script looks like this at the moment:
telinit 3
restart-aolserver intranet
/etc/rc.d/init.d/oracle8i stop
nice tar cfz /tmp/ora8.tar.gz /ora8
/etc/rc.d/init.d/oracle8i start
telinit 4
Aolserver runs at runlevel 4, so the telinit 3 is turning Aolserver off. I have a separate script that puts the backed up file somewhere safe.
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Posted by Andrew Piskorski on
Ok, here's my export script. Note that it's a little more complicated than necessary in order to be useful from the command line as well as from crontab. I just run it from crontab every night with the default values, but you'll probably want to either change the defaults, or add some command-line switches in your crontab to override the defaults.

Just run "ora-export.sh -h" to get help on the command line options.

#!/bin/sh
#
# ora-export.sh
# $Header: /home/cvsroot/unix/usr/local/adm/bin/ora-export.sh,v 1.3 2002/06/17 17:24:02 andy Exp $
#
# by atp@piskorski.com, 2002/05/29
#
# Script to do an Oracle export using a named pipe, gzip, and split,
# as described in _Expert One-on-One Oracle_ by Thomas Kyte,
# pg. 327-328, "Export to an OS Pipe".  This lets us avoid exp's
# possible 2 gig file size limit, use less work space on disk by not
# first writing out an un-compressed export file, etc.


# We assume that /etc/profile sets and exports ORACLE_SID,
# ORACLE_HOME, etc.:

. /etc/profile


# Various defult settings, most of which may be overridden on the
# command line:

# This PASSWORD_FILE must be a Bourne shell script which these
# variables like this:
#   ORA_USERNAME="username"
#   ORA_PASSWORD="password"

# TODO: Putting the password in a file like this keeps us from having
# to hard-code it into multiple script files, but the password STILL
# DOES show up in ps -ef output - not good.

PASSWORD_FILE="/usr/local/adm/bin/ora-system-password.sh"
PUT_IN_DIR="/web/oracle-backups"
MAX_SIZE=600
FULL_P=1
LOG_DATE_FORMAT='+%a %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %Z'

# TODO: For use on multiple machines, may want to move the above
# default settings into a separate configuration file, and source that
# file here.  Perhaps just use the same $PASSWORD_FILE.


CMDNAME=`basename $0`

USAGE="Do nightly Oracle export, using exp, gzip, and split. 

Usage:  ${CMDNAME} [-p FILE] [-d DIRECTORY] [-m SIZE] [-f {0|1}] 

        [-o USER] [-r LOG_FILE] 

Where: 

  -p  : Username/password file to source to set the ORA_USERNAME 

        and ORA_PASSWORD variables. 

        Default:  $PASSWORD_FILE 

  -d  : Directory where we will put the Oracle export file. 

        Default:  $PUT_IN_DIR 

  -m  : Max size of each dump file chunk, in megabytes. 

        Default:  $MAX_SIZE 

  -f  : Full instance export, 1 for yes, 0 for no. 

        Default:  $FULL_P 

  -o  : Oracle schema owner user name to export.  Only needed if -f is no. 

  -r  : Redirect stdout and stdin to file.  Set to empty string to 

        turn off default redirection to the log file. 
"

password_file=$PASSWORD_FILE
put_in_dir=$PUT_IN_DIR
max_size=$MAX_SIZE
full_p=$FULL_P
owner=""
redirect_p=0

direct_p=1
compress_p=1
consistent_p=1

while getopts hp:d:m:f:o:r: OPT
do
  case $OPT in
    h)  
        echo "$USAGE"
        exit
        ;;
    p)  password_file=$OPTARG
        ;;
    d)  put_in_dir=$OPTARG
        ;;
    m)  max_size=$OPTARG
        ;;
    f)  full_p=$OPTARG
        ;;
    o)  owner=$OPTARG
        ;;
    r)  STDOUT=$OPTARG
        STDERR=$OPTARG
        redirect_p=1
        ;;
    ?)
        echo 1>&2
        echo "ERROR:  One or more bad command line options." 1>&2
        echo 1>&2
        echo "$USAGE" 1>&2
        exit 1
        ;;
  esac
done
shift `expr $OPTIND - 1`

ORA_USERNAME=""
ORA_PASSWORD=""
. $password_file

weekday=`date "+%a"`

# TODO: We only have one Oracle instance on this machine.  If we add
# another, we'll need to change things to optionally take the
# ORACLE_SID as a command line option, or something like that:
# --atp@piskorski.com, 2002/05/29 11:03 EDT

if [ "$full_p" -eq 1 ]
then
  full_opt="full=y"
  owner_opt=""
  dump_file="${ORACLE_SID}-${ORA_USERNAME}-full-${weekday}.dmp.gz"
  log_file="${ORACLE_SID}-${ORA_USERNAME}-full-${weekday}.log"
else
  full_opt="full=n"
  if [ "$owner" = "" ]
  then
    owner="$ORA_USERNAME"
  fi
  owner_opt="owner=$owner"
  dump_file="${ORACLE_SID}-${owner}-${weekday}.dmp.gz"
  log_file="${ORACLE_SID}-${owner}-${weekday}.log"
fi


# Redirect stdout and stderr to where?  Settings STDOUT and STDERR to
# empty string will cause no redirection to occur at all:

if [ "$redirect_p" -ne 1 ]
then
  STDOUT=$log_file
  STDERR=$log_file
fi

# Truncate the old previous log file:
cat -s '' > $log_file

if [ "$ORA_USERNAME" = "" ]
then 
  echo "Error: ORA_USERNAME not set." 1>&2  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
  exit 1
fi

if [ "$ORA_PASSWORD" = "" ]
then 
  echo "Error: ORA_PASSWORD not set." 1>&2  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
  exit 1
fi


if [ "$direct_p" -eq 1 ]
then
  direct_opt="direct=y"
else
  direct_opt="direct=n"
fi

if [ "$compress_p" -eq 1 ]
then
  compress_opt="compress=y"
else
  compress_opt="compress=n"
fi

if [ "$consistent_p" -eq 1 ]
then
  consistent_opt="consistent=y"
else
  consistent_opt="consistent=n"
fi

# The process id of this running script:
pid=$$

ora_exp_maxsize="${max_size}m"
pipe="/tmp/${dump_file}-${pid}"
cd $put_in_dir

if [ -p $pipe ]
then
  # We've included the PID in the pipe name, so this is pretty
  # unlikely:

  echo "WARNING: Named pipe $pipe already existed!" 1>&2  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
  echo   `ls -l $pipe`  1>&2  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
fi


rm -f $pipe
mknod $pipe p

if [ $? -ne 0 ]
then
  echo "ERROR: Failed to create named pipe: $pipe" 1>&2  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
  exit 1
fi

echo "$CMDNAME export STARTING:  `date "$LOG_DATE_FORMAT"`"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR

# Note: If this week's export is smaller than last week's, then simply
# overwriting the files might leave one extra split file from LAST
# week, which would mess things up when we re-combine the split files
# in order to do an import.  So go and delete the old dump files
# first, rather than simply overwriting them:

rm -f ${dump_file}.*

gzip < $pipe | split -b $ora_exp_maxsize - ${dump_file}. &
exp $ORA_USERNAME/$ORA_PASSWORD file=$pipe $full_opt $owner_opt $consistent_opt $direct_opt $compress_opt  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR

echo "$CMDNAME export DONE:  `date "$LOG_DATE_FORMAT"`"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR

# To import the dump files we just created, something like this will work:
#
#   cat `ls -1 ${dump_file}.* | sort` | gunzip > $pipe &
#   imp $ORA_USERNAME/$ORA_PASSWORD file=$pipe show=y

rm -f $pipe

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Posted by Rich Graves on
We use http://www.backupcentral.com/oraback.html

It's a real monster, but every bit of bloat was added for a reason.

I went to Curtis's "Oracle backup and recovery for sysadmins" tutorial at the last USENIX LISA. Highly recommended if you have the means.

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Posted by Andrew Piskorski on
There's a small bug in my ora-export.sh script above:

You should move the cd $put_in_dir line up to be before the if [ "$redirect_p" -ne 1 ] line, not where it is now. If the cd isn't before the cat -s '' > $log_file truncation of the old log file, the log file never gets truncated at all and it will just keep growing week after week.

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Posted by Andrew Piskorski on
Well, I started out this thread asking about Oracle hot backup scripts, so here's mine. I've been using it for several weeks now, seems to work fine:

#!/bin/sh
#
# ora-rman-hb.sh
# $Header: /home/cvsroot/unix/usr/local/adm/bin/ora-rman-hb.sh,v 1.4 2002/06/27 22:12:43 andy Exp $
#
# by atp@piskorski.com, 2002/06/19
# originally based on a similar script by Xuequn "Robert" Xu
# <xux@arsdigita.com>, c. 2000/10/03.

# Oracle physical hot backup using RMAN.  Run as user oracle from
# crontab something like so, to run every night at 0:45 am:
#
# 45 0 * * * /usr/local/adm/bin/ora-rman-hb.sh


# We assume that /etc/profile sets and exports ORACLE_SID,
# ORACLE_HOME, etc.:

. /etc/profile

BACKUP_ROOT="/web/oracle-backups"
backup_root=$BACKUP_ROOT
backup_dir="$backup_root/rman"
backup_dir_old_1="$backup_root/rman-old-1"
backup_dir_old_7="$backup_root/rman-old-7"

ARCHIVED_LOGS_DIR="$ORACLE_BASE/admin/ora8/arch"
PASSWORD_FILE="/usr/local/adm/bin/ora-system-password.sh"
MAX_SIZE_KBYTES=614400
LOG_DATE_FORMAT='+%a %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %Z'

ORA_USERNAME=""
ORA_PASSWORD=""
. $PASSWORD_FILE

CMDNAME=`basename $0`
log_file=`basename $CMDNAME`.log

USAGE="Do nightly Oracle 8.1.7 physical hot backup using RMAN. 

Usage:  ${CMDNAME} [-h] [-t]  

Where: 

  -h  : Show this help and exit. 

  -t  : Don't do use the 'backup database' command, use 

        'backup tablespace' instead. 

  -r  : Redirect stdout and stdin to file.  Set to empty string to 

        turn off default redirection to the log file. 

        Default:  $backup_dir/$log_file 

  -d  : Directory root where we will place our directories of backup files. 

        This must be an ABSOLUTE pathname, and the oracle unix user must be 

        able to write to it. 

        Default:  $BACKUP_ROOT 

        So by default, the backup files will be placed in: 

                  $backup_dir/ 

                  $backup_dir_old_1/ 

                  $backup_dir_old_7/ 
"

tablespace_p=0
redirect_p=0

while getopts htr:d: OPT
do
  case $OPT in
    h)  
        echo
        echo "$USAGE"
        echo
        exit
        ;;
    t)  tablespace_p=1
        ;;
    r)  STDOUT=$OPTARG
        STDERR=$OPTARG
        redirect_p=1
        ;;
    d)  backup_root=$OPTARG
        backup_dir="$backup_root/rman"
        backup_dir_old_1="$backup_root/rman-old-1"
        backup_dir_old_7="$backup_root/rman-old-7"
        ;;
    ?)
        echo 1>&2
        echo "ERROR:  One or more bad command line options." 1>&2
        echo 1>&2
        echo "$USAGE" 1>&2
        exit 1
        ;;
  esac
done
shift `expr $OPTIND - 1`

# Redirect stdout and stderr to where?  Settings STDOUT and STDERR to
# empty string will cause no redirection to occur at all:

if [ "$redirect_p" -ne 1 ]
then
  STDOUT=$backup_dir/$log_file
  STDERR=$backup_dir/$log_file
fi


create_dir() {
  # Takes the path name of directory to create.  Allows recursive
  # creation.  If the file already exists, returns an error if it is a
  # normal file, does nothing if the file is a directory.

  return_code=0
  if [ -f $1 ]
  then
    return_code=1
    echo "Error:  A file '$1' already exists.  Cannot create directory '$1'."
  elif [ ! -d $1 ]
  then
    mkdir -p $1
    return_code=$?
  fi

  return $return_code
}   


# Delete the 2 day old backup, and move the yesterday's backup from
# the current to the 1 day old directory.  On Monday, instead of
# deleting the old Saturday 12:45 am backup, move it into the week-old
# directory:

create_dir $backup_dir
create_dir $backup_dir_old_1
create_dir $backup_dir_old_7

# 0 is Sunday:
weekday_num=`date "+%w"`

if [ $weekday_num -eq 1 ]
then
  /bin/rm -f $backup_dir_old_7/*
  /bin/mv -f $backup_dir_old_1/* $backup_dir_old_7/
fi

/bin/rm -f $backup_dir_old_1/*
/bin/mv -f $backup_dir/* $backup_dir_old_1/


if [ "$tablespace_p" -eq 1 ]
then
  # Using 'backup database' also includes the temp tablespace, which
  # we don't need, and which on our machien is currently ludicrously
  # large.  So for now, we want to use 'backup tablespace' instead.
  # For some info on fixing the temp tablespace problem, see:
  #   http://openacs.org/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=000542
  # Therefore, generate the list of tablespaces we went to backup,
  # excluding the temp tablespace:
  # --atp@piskorski.com, 2002/06/20 09:36 EDT

  tablespace_list=`$ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus -S $ORA_USERNAME/$ORA_PASSWORD <<EOS  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
set feed off linesize 500 pages 0
select tablespace_name
from dba_tablespaces
where tablespace_name not like 'TEMP%';
exit
EOS`

  tablespace_list=`echo $tablespace_list | /bin/sed -e 's/ /, /g'`
  backup_what="tablespace  $tablespace_list  include current controlfile ;"

else
  # Use 'backup datbase' rman command, NOT 'backup tablespace':
  backup_what="database ;"

fi

echo "$CMDNAME: We will backup:  $backup_what"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR


# Run rman, executing the rman script lines up to the "EOS" sign:
#
# We set the max size on the channel of a single backup piece file to
# MAX_SIZE_KBYTES.  We pick a default value of 600 MB so that we're
# certain we could fit each file onto a 650 MB CD-R disk if for some
# reason we want to.  (If 1 kb = 1023 bytes, 600 MB = 614400 kb.  If 1
# kb = 1000 bytes, 600 MB = 629145.6 kb.)
#
# Note that while the Oracle docs are vague on the distinction,
# filesperset is the maximum number of Oracle data files to read into
# the backup set, NOT the max number of "backup piece" files to write
# out!  Presumably, as many backup pieces will be created as
# necessary, and the max size of each backup piece is defined by the
# 'set limit channel' command.
#
# We could also allocate additional channels in order to spread the
# backup across multiple disks.  Each single backup set goes to only
# one channel, an each channel can have 1 or more backup sets.

echo "$CMDNAME: rman backup STARTING:  `date "$LOG_DATE_FORMAT"`"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR

$ORACLE_HOME/bin/rman target / nocatalog <<EOS  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
run {

  allocate channel m01 type disk format '$backup_dir/%d-t%t-s%s-p%p.bak';
  allocate channel m02 type disk format '$backup_dir/%d-t%t-s%s-p%p.bak';
  allocate channel m03 type disk format '$backup_dir/%d-t%t-s%s-p%p.bak';

  set limit channel m01 kbytes $MAX_SIZE_KBYTES;
  set limit channel m02 kbytes $MAX_SIZE_KBYTES;
  set limit channel m03 kbytes $MAX_SIZE_KBYTES;

  backup 
    filesperset = 6
    skip inaccessible
    skip offline
  $backup_what

  # Archives the current redo log plus any other non-archived redo
  # logs.  The Oracle docs say you should do this immediately after
  # backing up the database:
  #   http://otn.oracle.com/docs/products/oracle8i/doc_library/817_doc/server.817/a76990/troubler.htm#446214 
  # --atp@piskorski.com, 2002/06/19 21:11 EDT

  sql 'alter system archive log current';

  # Creates a "trace file" script which when run will re-create the
  # control file, but all RMAN info in the control file will be lost.
  # We've already made a physical backup of th control file above, so
  # also doing this here is belt-and-suspenders:
  # --atp@piskorski.com, 2002/06/19 21:11 EDT

  sql 'alter database backup controlfile to trace';
}
exit
EOS

echo "$CMDNAME: rman backup DONE:  `date "$LOG_DATE_FORMAT"`"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR

# Note that the 'backup database' command does NOT backup the archived
# redo logs.  Since our nightly file-system backs them up directly
# from where Oracle puts them, this is ok, we don't need to do a
# 'backup archivelog' command in RMAN.

# Note that since we have put them under CVS control, here we are NOT
# backing up the init.ora file, listener.ora, and other config files
# located in:
#   $ORACLE_BASE/admin/ora8/pfile/
#   $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/

# TODO: The 'backup database' command backs up the control file, but
# it seems unclear WHICH version of the control file it backs up - the
# control file as it existed BEFORE RMAN started, or the version AFTER
# the RMAN backup of the database files completes, when it will
# include recovery catalog information for the database backup just
# completed.  If RMAN backs up the before version, perhaps we would
# also want to do 'backup current controlfile' or 'include current
# controlfile' after the 'backup database'.  I recall seeing at least
# one example in the Oracle docs that implies that this might be a
# good thing to do, but none of the rest the examples do so, so it's
# probably not necessary.
# --atp@piskorski.com, 2002/06/19 19:56 EDT


# It would be nice to have RMAN write to a named pipe and have gzip
# read from the named pipe at the same time in the background, like we
# do in the ora-export.sh script, but I'm not even really certain
# whether that's feasible.  So to keep things simple, just gzip
# separately after RMAN is done:  --atp@piskorski.com, 2002/06/25 09:19 EDT

echo "$CMDNAME: gzip STARTING:  `date "$LOG_DATE_FORMAT"`"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
/bin/gzip $backup_dir/*.bak  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR
echo "$CMDNAME: gzip DONE:  `date "$LOG_DATE_FORMAT"`"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR

# Remove archived redo logs more than 12 days old: 
#
# Since on Monday we move the previous Saturday backup into the week
# old directory (2 days old), a minimum of ** 10 ** days of archived
# redo logs (7 days + 2 + 1 extra to account for different times
# during the day) should insure that we always have enough archived
# logs on disk to take us all the way back to the oldest full backup
# which we have on disk.

/bin/find $ARCHIVED_LOGS_DIR ( -ctime +12 ) -exec /bin/rm {} ;  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR

echo "$CMDNAME: everything DONE:  `date "$LOG_DATE_FORMAT"`"  1>>$STDOUT 2>>$STDERR